Statements on the Dispute Between the Baha’i Family – By Kamar Bahai Granddaughter of Baha’u’llah

Mrs. Bahai praises ‘Abdu’l-Baha and focuses all of her opposition towards the person and policies of Shoghi Effendi Rabbani. She makes some questionable statements such as that the will of ‘Abdu’l-Baha is “counterfeit” and that “Mohammed Ali’s group were the true believers in Abbas Effendi”—part of a consistent pattern in her writings of at­tempting to protect the public image of both of her uncles rather than acknowledging the deep distrust that existed between them during their lifetimes. Mrs. Bahai explains the reasons for the lawsuit she filed against Mr. Rabbani, and speculates that he settled it out of court because of fear that a trial could have opened up larger and more difficult to resolve issues concerning his legitimacy as the world Baha’i leader.

 For more details about writings of Kamar Bahai please visit blog:-

The Three Baha’i Sects

The Baha’is are divided into three groups:

First: The Society of Behaists, the oldest assembly. Believing in Baha’u’llah to be the Manifestation, the beginner and the end, and the fulfiller of all the prophecies; accepting His teachings to the letter and considering them final as He declared. Obedient to all the laws revealed by Him and guided by them as He commanded. Respecting His Branches (sons) with reverence in accordance with His Will entitled Kitab-i-‘Ahdi (the Book of My Covenant).

Second: The National Spiritual Assembly of the Baha’is of the United States and Canada. Recognizing Baha’u’llah as the Author, and His eldest son ‘Abdu’l-Baha (Abbas) as Interpreter and true exemplar of the Baha’i cause; accepting the will of Abdu’l-Baha (Abbas) as final and incorporating the same in their organization, thus reproducing the supremacy of the Papacy by appointing infallible guardians and little popes for the next thousand years….

Third: The New History Society. Believing in Baha’u’llah and Ab-du’l-Baha (Abbas), but not accepting the leadership of Shoghi Effendi in compliance with the will of Abdu’l-Baha.

Courtesy:- Extracts taken from the book ‘A Lost History of the Baha’i Faith’

Selected Questions and Answers

Summer 1934 Foreword of Bahai Quarterly Magazine.

Q1: What was the station of the “Bab”?

A: Elijah. The forerunner of He Whom God Shall Manifest.

Note:- Judaism teaches that Elijah will return to earth to announce the coming of the Messiah. Christians believe that John the Baptist, the forerunner of Jesus Christ, was the return of Elijah (see Matthew 11:10,14). Baha’is hold a similar belief about the Bab.

Q2: What was the station of “Baha’u’llah”?

A: The fulfiller. The Manifestation [of God].


Q3: Who was the founder of the Baha’i religion?

A: Baha’u’llah. Who spent forty years in revealing tablets for the enlightenment of mankind. Invited all the rulers of the world, includ­ing the pope, to come to the Kingdom of the Father. Completed His mission on earth and departed in 1892.


 Q4: “Religion without clergy”—then who will be our leader?

A: Baha’u’llah commanded that His teachings are our leaders; we should study and be guided by them; also to pray individually and not in congregation. Thus He freed us from the clutches of the clergy. In the Book of Aqdas, He said, “If ye differ in a matter, bring it to God, so long as the Sun is shining from the Horizon of this heaven; but when He sets, bring it to what He uttered, verily it suffices the worlds.”


 Q5: Is there need of an interpreter for the utterances of Baha’u’llah?

A: No. His utterances are very clear to comprehend and He prohibited their interpretation.

In the Book of Aqdas He said, “He whosoever interpreteth what are descended from the heaven of revelations differently from its apparent meaning is of those who changed the Supreme Word of God, and is considered one of those who are written as losers in the Manifest Book.”


Q6: Baha’u’llah passed unto Eternity in 1892. How many sons survived Him?

A: Four. The eldest Ghusn-i-A‘zam, the Greatest Branch, Abbas (Abdu’l-Baha); the second Ghusn-i-Akbar, the Mightiest Branch, Mo-hammed Ali Bahai; the third Zia Ullah, and the fourth Badi Ullah.


Q7: How many of His sons are living today?

A: Two. The second son Ghusn-i-Akbar, the Mightiest Branch, Mo-hammed Ali Bahai, and the fourth son, Badi Ullah, both residing at Acre, Palestine.


Q8: During the life of Baha’u’llah on earth, what were the duties of His sons?

A: During Baha’u’llah’s exile at the fortress of Acre, his eldest son Ghusn-i-A‘zam Abbas (‘Abdu’l-Baha) was assigned to the entertainment of the government officials and outer circle visitors. His second son Ghusn-i-Akbar Mohammed Ali Bahai was assigned to the entertainment of the inner circle, pilgrims, [and as] inscriber of Baha’u’llah’s utterances and promulgator of His teachings throughout the world, especially Persia. Today he is the possessor of the seals of Baha’u’llah and His complete [written] teachings. In the latter years [of Baha’u’llah’s life] His two younger sons, Zia Ullah and Badi Ullah, served as inscribes of His utterances also.


Q9: In what tongue did Baha’u’llah reveal His utterances?

A: In the Persian and the Arabic languages.


Q10: How many volumes of His utterances have been published, when, and where?

A: Five volumes were published in Bombay, India, 1889-1890 A.D.


Q11: By whom?

A: By the commands of Baha’u’llah, His second son Ghusn-i-Akbar Mohammed Ali Bahai made a journey to Bombay, India and succeeded in publishing the same. For details please consult Behai Quarterly, First Quarter 1935, page fourteen.

(Full copy of Behai Quarterly available to download and read online. Please visit the link below:-

Q12: What is the significance of the word “branch” applied to the sons of Baha’u’llah?

A: Baha’u’llah called himself a Tree and His sons branches of the tree.


Q13: What are the stations of His sons, the branches?

A: The [verses from] the following tablets revealed by Baha’u’llah answer your question:

            The Branches who are branched from the Sadrat (Tree of Life) are my fingerposts amongst my creatures, and my fragrance between heaven and earth. Have ye ever seen a companion or an equal to God, your Lord? By the Lord of All the Worlds, No! Then speak not of that which God did not permit, but rather fear the Merciful and be of those who reason.

           O people, hold after my departure to the branches who were branched from this Ancient Root. For by them the fragrance of my garment shall be diffused throughout the world, but no one can attain it, save every upright seeker.

O my brothers, we command you and your children and those who are upon earth, never to resist my branches, nor do what will grieve them. They have the supreme position and the highest rank amongst you. Fear ye God and be not of those who are unjust.

Abdul Baha makes false prophecies and denies right of women

Baha’u’llah may have been inspired by God, but he didn’t always get everything right. For example, in his “Tablet of Wisdom” he wrote that “Empedocles, who distinguished himself in philosophy, was a contemporary of David,

Ref: Lawh-i-Hikmat (“Tablet of Wisdom”). Official Baha’i translation in Tablets of Baha’u’llah Revealed After the Kitab-i-Aqdas (Wilmette, 111.: US Bahai Pub­lishing Trust, 1988 pocket-size edition), p. 145.

while Pythagoras lived in the days of Solomon, son of David.”  In fact, the Greek philosopher Empedocles lived about 500 years after the Israelite King David, and Pythagoras lived about 400 years after Solomon. Even the order in which the two philosophers lived was reversed by Baha’u’llah. If he was a Manifestation of God, he was also a mere human, and the limitations and errors of his human mind sometimes interfered with the transmission of divine knowledge by the Manifestation.

‘Abdu’l-Baha also made false prophecies. For example, he predicted “the unity of nations—a unity which in this century [i.e. the 20th century] will be securely established, causing all the peoples of the world to regard themselves as citizens of one common fatherland.”

Ref: Tablet of ‘Abdu’l-Baha quoted by Shoghi Effendi in The World Order of Bahaullah (US Baha’i Publishing Trust, 1991 first pocket-size edition), p. 39.

  He said that peace “will be universal in the twentieth century. … By international agreement [the nations] will lay down their arms and the great era of peace will be ushered in.”

Ref: ‘Abdu’l-Baha, quoted in “’Abdu’l-Baha in Canada” (Thornhill: Baha’i Canada Publications, 1987), pp. 34-35. Reproduced in Peace, compiled by the Research Department of the Universal House of Justice (Baha’i World Centre, August 1985), section 42, p. 17.

  World War II proved him wrong, as well as the many other wars that have broken out since then.

The “equality of women and men” is one of the core principles of the Baha’i faith, yet women are prohibited from being elected to the highest Baha’i leadership institution, the Universal House of Justice. This glaring hypocrisy is undoubtedly a source of considerable embarrassment to Baha’is, but they don’t believe they can do anything to change it. ‘Abdu’l-Baha wrote: “The House of Justice… according to the explicit text of the Law of God, is confined to men; this for a wisdom of the Lord God’s, which will erelong be made manifest as clearly as the sun at high noon.”

Ref: Selections From the Writings of Abdu’l-Baha (Baha’i World Centre, 1982 lightweight edition), section 38, p. 80.

  The “explicit text” that he was referring to is Baha’u’llah’s references in the Kitab-i-Aqdas to the “men [rijal] of the House of Justice.

Ref: For example, Baha’u’llah says “O ye Men of Justice!” in paragraph 52 of the Aqdas, and “men of the House of Justice” in the supplementary Questions and Answers, #101.

Courtesy:- Extracts taken from the book ‘A Lost History Of The Baha’i Faith’.

Shoghi Effendi violates the command of Baha’u’llah

Shoghi Effendi himself, he and his wife found themselves unable to have children. With no heirs, and having excommunicated every living descendant of Baha’u’llah but himself, there was no one eligible to be appointed as his successor in accordance with the provisions of the Will and Testament of ‘Abdu’l-Baha, so the office of the Guardianship became permanently vacant upon his passing.

He died suddenly of the Asian flu, at the age of 60, while visiting London in 1957. His grave is located in that city instead of among the Baha’i shrines in Israel, because, according to Baha’i law, a body cannot be moved more than one hour’s journey from the place of death. 

He failed to leave a will, violating Baha’u’llah’s command that “Unto everyone hath been enjoined the writing of a will,”  and thus the Baha’is had no clear guidance for how their faith should be led without a second Guardian after his passing.

Courtersy:- Extracts taken from the book ‘ A Lost History Of The Baha’i Faith’

Excommunication By Shoghi Effendi

Following in the footsteps of his grandfather, Shoghi Effendi also chose to excommunicate his relatives who did not show absolute deference to his wishes and views. By the end of his life, he had excommunicated every one of the descendants of ‘Abdu’l-Baha as well as all the descendants of Baha’u’llah’s third wife. Thus, the entire family of Ba- ha’u’llah—except for Shoghi Effendi himself, his wife Ruhiyyih, and ‘Abdu’l-Baha’s widow Munirih and sister Bahiyyih—ended up expelled from the mainstream Baha’i community and shunned.

         One of the most disturbing examples was Shoghi Effendi’s excommunication of his cousin Munib Shahid for marrying a Muslim. In the words of Hassan Jalal Shahid, the last surviving grandchild of‘Abdu’l- Baha:

               [Regarding my brother Dr Munib Shahid of the American University of Beirut (AUB)… His wife Serene Husseini was the daughter of Jamal Husseini. He was a notable of Jerusalem, a prominent and respected Palestinian politician who had been exiled by the British to the Seychelles Islands and then to Southern Rhodesia (now Zimbabwe) to put an end to his struggle for an in-dependent Palestine. While there, his daughter Serene wanted to get married to my brother Munib Shahid. She contacted her father, Jamal Husseini, for his consent. He did not know who Munib Shahid was and asked a fellow exile from Haifa, Mr Tanimi, about him. Mr Tamini told him to consider it an honor that the grandson of Abdul-Baha wanted to marry his daughter. On the recommendation, he consented to and blessed the marriage….

My brother was a sincere and true Bahai and tried many times, until the last years of his life to return to the Cause [i.e. the organized Baha’i faith], … Munib was no Covenant Breaker and died a disappointed man for having been deprived of something that meant so much to him and in which he sincerely believed.

Ref: Hassan Jalal Shahid, “Comments About Munib Shahid,” http://www.

                 One more relative of Shoghi Effendi whom he excommunicated deserves special attention: his cousin Ruhi Afnan, a grandson of ‘Abdu’l-Baha who was a prominent and well-respected teacher of the Baha’i faith. Ruhi Afnan was such a significant figure that the liberal Baha’i leader Ahmad Sohrab wrote a whole book about him and his case, an unauthorized biography entitled Abdul Baba’s Grandson: Story of a Twentieth Century Excommunication, even though Mr. Afnan never supported Mr. Sohrab’s denomination. Here is his summary from that book, of Mr. Afhan’s career as a Baha’i administrator and spokesperson:

                   Ruhi Effendi Afhan acted as confidential secretary to the Guardian of the Bahai Cause for fourteen years; and the records of the Bahai organization show that during that time, from 1922 to 1936, he was constantly in demand in a variety of capacities. In 1924, he appeared in London as Shoghi Effendi’s personal representative and delivered a brilliant address on the Bahai Religion before The Conference of Some Living Religions Within the British Empire. In 1927, he visited the United States as traveling agent and spiritual salesman of the Guardian, championing with fervor and zeal the system of Bahai administration before recognized and declared Bahais. He was an outstanding and honored guest at the 20th Annual Bahai Convention in Chicago, where he participated vitally in all proceedings; was the guest speaker at Green Acre Bahai Summer School in Maine, and traveled from coast to coast, delivering Bahai speeches before churches, colleges and outside gatherings.

                    In 1928, we find him in Geneva, Switzerland, where, as the accredited representative of the Bahai Cause, he participates in the Conference of International Peace Through the Churches. Here, we see him taking the floor, offering some constructive suggestions which, as one report says, were very much to the point, and carrying his argument. In 1935, with the Guardian’s approval (See Baha ’i News, page 3, October 1935), he pays his second visit to the United States; takes part in the National Bahai meeting in Chicago and, before his departure, addresses a number of local Bahai communities.

           Ref: Mirza Ahmad Sohrab, Abdul Baha’s Grandson: Story of a Twentieth Century Excommunication (New York: Universal Publishing Co., 1943), pp. 67-68. Emphasis in original.

Despite Ruhi Aihan’s exemplary record of service to the Baha’i faith, Shoghi Effendi excommunicated him in 1941, stating three rea­sons: (1) that Mr. Afhan’s sister married one of the sons of Foroughiyya and Ali Afhan, all of whom he considered to be Covenant-breakers; (2) that Ruhi Afhan himself married a cousin, one of the granddaughters of‘Abdu’l-Baha, of whom he apparently disapproved; and (3) that Mr. Afhan supposedly made his second trip to the United States without Shoghi Effendi’s approval.

 Ref: These points were made by Shoghi Effendi in two cablegrams received by the leaders of the American Baha’i community on November 10,1941 and pub­lished in the December 1941 issue of Baha’i News, pp. 1-2. Archives are available online at

    In a long and very interesting letter Mr. Afnan wrote in 1970, he recalls, among other things, that:

      For twelve years after Shoghi Effendi cast me out of the Cause I regularly wrote a petition—at least once a year—and more often than not, took them to the House [of Shoghi Effendi] myself. Several times I saw [Shoghi’s wife] Ruhiyyih Khanum who would meet me and end up by rejecting my request. I always wondered whether Shoghi Effendi read those letters or not. One day I asked [Shoghi’s mother] Zia Khanum. She told me that other than myself, many people wrote such petitions, for example Rouha Khanum [Zia Khanum’s sister and Ruhi’s aunt]. Apparently Shoghi Effendi had a special suitcase full of such letters from members of the family, all of which he saved. Zia Khanum added that she herself, every month, sometimes every week, would write such a petition and pour out her heart, in an effort to clarify matters to her son. I don’t know whether that suitcase full of letters still exists. If it does, it would tell the story of those people and the pain they bore.

      According to Ruhi Afhan, he was even banned from visiting Baha’- u’llah’s tomb, and threatened by Shoghi Effendi’s wife, who informed him that “orders had been given to beat me and throw me out” if he ever went to the Shrine.  This only changed as a result of a lawsuit by Kamar Bahai in 1952.

 Ref: Letter by Ruhi Mohsen Afnan to the Baha’i Spiritual Assembly of Iran, 1970. Translation by Bahiyeh Afnan Shahid, available online at, pp. 20-21.

Courtesy:- Extracts taken from the book ‘ A Lost History of the Baha’i Faith’ by Shua Ullah Behai

The Broken Baha’i “Covenant”

The history of the Baha’i faith is in large part a story of shattered plans and broken promises or to put it in Baha’i terminology, “Covenant-breaking.” During the ministry of each leader and at every stage of transfer of leadership, there has been a great deal of conflict and controversy. Covenants have been broken not only by those who have traditionally been assigned the blame, but by the recognized leaders of the faith as well. With every fresh round of dissension and excommunications, there were valid arguments on both sides, but one side utterly defeated the other and demonized it to such a degree that its views are typically never considered by Baha’is or by the average person studying the Baha’i religion.

          Baha’is have responded to the historical record by digging in their heels on the thoroughly refutable claim that theirs is the only religion in history which has a perfect, unbroken chain of authority passed down from one leader to the next. It does not; no major religion does. In fact, Baha’i may actually be more noteworthy among religions for its perfect record of leadership conflicts in every generation or stage of development during the first one hundred years of its existence. The Baha’i “Covenant” is broken—and always has been, from the moment Baha’u’llah declared himself to be a new Manifestation of God.

                   Let’s start there. The Bab appointed Mirza Yahya Nuri, a younger half-brother of Baha’u’llah, as his successor. It was far from clear that another Divine Manifestation should appear anytime soon; according to Babism, the founders of religions were supposed to appear roughly every one thousand years. But because the Bab’s successor was a quiet man with a reclusive personality—more interested in writing esoteric religious texts than in playing the role of a charismatic leader for the nascent Babi community—many followers of the Bab began looking for a forceful personality to provide them with the divine guidance they craved. Several prominent Babis proclaimed themselves to be “Him whom God shall make manifest,” interpreting vague prophecies of the Bab in their own favor. Mirza Husayn Ali Nuri was one of these claimants, calling himself Baha’u’llah. Shortly thereafter, Mirza Yahya responded by making a similar claim, and called himself Subh-i-Azal.

          It is beyond the scope of this book to investigate the conflict between these two brothers, but suffice it to say that it was ferocious. There were denunciations and counter-denunciations, and the Nuri family was split between supporters of each brother.  Things reached the point of assassinations and attempted assassinations. Eventually the government had to intervene and banish the two branches of the family and their respective fanatical followers to two different provinces of the Ottoman Empire: the Azalis to Cyprus, and the Baha’is to Syria (now Israel).

                    After leading the Baha’is for almost 30 years without a Universal House of Justice, ‘Abdu’l-Baha died and left the reins of authority to his grandson, Shoghi Effendi Rabbani, whom he gave the title of “Guardian.” However, he made it explicitly clear in his will that Shoghi Effendi should work together with the democratically elected leadership body, at long last to be created, that Baha’u’llah had originally envisioned. As ‘Abdu’l-Baha wrote:

                    The sacred and youthful branch, the Guardian of the Cause of God, as well as the Universal House of Justice to be universally elected and established, are both under the care and protection of the Abha Beauty [Baha’u’llah]… Whatsoever they decide is of God….

[Concerning the House of Justice which God hath ordained as the source of all good and freed from all error, it must be elected by universal suffrage, that is, by the believers. Unto this body all things must be referred. It enacteth all ordinances and regulations that are not to be found in the explicit Holy Text. By this body all the difficult problems are to be resolved and the Guardian of the Cause of God is its sacred head and the distinguished member for life of that body.

Ref: The Will And Testament of’Abdu’l-Baha (Wilmette, 111.: US Baha’i Publishing Trust, 1990 reprint), Part One, pp. n, 14.

                   Defying his grandfather’s instructions to create the Universal House of Justice and lead the Baha’i faith in conjunction with its elected members as its chairman, Shoghi Effendi chose to rule unilaterally. His ministry lasted over 35 years, and during that entire time the House of Justice was never brought into being. This was a choice he made—a choice which violated both the spirit and the letter of ‘Abdu’l- Baha’s will. There were plenty of eminent Baha’is from various nations who could have served capably and admirably on a Universal House of Justice, had it been created, but Shoghi Effendi evidently preferred to hold all power in his own hands—just as ‘Abdu’l-Baha had preferred and chosen in his own ministry.

Courtest:- Extracts taken form the book “The Lost History Of the Baha’i Faith”




The record of history instructs about the world-wide social movements and about the intrigues that centered on earnest reformers; they also bring to light conspiracies which were hatched by consummate plotters for no other reason than considerable personal benefit.

Is it were possible for me to mention here instances of such intrigues as accompanied the social movements referred to above, I would have done so, but considering. If interested, the dear reader could turn over the pages of history and discover for himself innumerable instances of the existence of such intrigues.

The Baha’i Movement itself did not form an exception to the rule. The basest form of intrigue was minutely would up around the Movement and to a large extent succeeded in achieving its vicious aim and, in my opinion, not without besmirching the reputation of loyal and good leaders. The intriguers acting jointly to create a chasm in the Baha’i family, aimed at separating the two brothers, Abdul Baha Abbas and Mohammad Ali Effendi, the legitimate leaders of the Baha’i Movement. They sowed the seeds of discord between them by magnifying trifling incidents in such a way as to affect adversely the hearts of the two brothers and increase the misunderstanding between them. They succeeded in their dark purpose for the misunderstanding which they planted grew as the years went by.

To complete their wickedness those same intrigues prevented Mohammad Ali Effendi from seeing his dying brother, Abbas Effendi pretending that the letter did not wish to be distributed by his own brother from paying his last respects to his dying brother!!! And need there be a clearest manifestation of Mohammad Ali’s noble character when he submitted to the intriguer’s will and desisted from seeing his dying brother in order to prevent further dissension in the Movement.

As I am how presented to the reader a picture of the life of the Baha’i Leaders, I feel bound to put on record a short paragraph on the life’s work of the Second Son of Baha’u’llah, Mohammad Ali Effendi, – this son who was usurped of his right, whose good heart and noble character, followed the principles of Baha’ism to the letter, whose humanity was boundless, this man of peace whose very virtues enabled the intriguers to take full advantage of his adherence to Baha’ism in order to destroy the last bridge that linked him with what they called the followers of Abbas Effendi who were in fact the intriguers themselves and a few of their supporters.

I would like to quote extracts from the then local Arabic, English and Hebrew newspapers when they mourned Mohammad Ali Effendi’s death, In this connection it is noteworthy to mention that even the famous review “Great Britain and the East” which is regarded as the mouthpiece of the British Government in matters of foreign policy, published an article on the occasion of his death bearing the heading : “Baha’i Leader Dead”. The kind reader will now read the quotations taken from “El Difah”. Palastine, “Jammeh el Eslamiye”, “Post News”, “Palestine Post”, Haboker, “Haaretz” and “Davar”.

“The picture of the deceased Mohammad Ali Effendi, the renowned and noble leader of Baha’ism, son of the great Baha’u’llah, the founder of Baha’ism. Mohammad Ali Effendi whose father Baha’u’llah entitled him; “The Mightiest Branch” was born in Teheran the Capital of Iran in the year 1853. Accompanied his father to Baghdad and then to the Capital of the Caliphs and finally to Acre where the founder of Baha’ism established his permanent residence.

His father educated him so profoundly that for all controversial matters regarding Baha’ism and other religious, he was consulted as an authority. Moreover he edited books and wrote messages. As shown by his father’s letters and messages, Baha’u’llah specially favored him and so much so that he nominated him to the leadership of the Movement to follow his elder brother, the late Abbas Effendi, entitled “The Greatest Branch”.

Mohammad Ali Effendi was a personality with a noble character, lofty heart and soul, a man of peace and shove petty family quarrels, he instructed his followers to remain peaceful and quiet. He was the inseparable secretary and confident of his father.”

Truly he was his father’s confident for his father during his lifetime instructed him with the mission of preaching Baha’ism in India and Egypt. He was the only son, among Baha’u’llah’s sons to have been honored with such a responsible and weighty mission while the Movement was still in its infancy and needed strong and imposing men. He succeeded in his mission and achieving the aims set out by Baha’u’llah, his father.

The fact that the founder of Baha’ism assigned the weighty responsibility of carrying out the mission to his son, Mohammad Ali Effendi among others, clearly proves, that he had great confidence in his abilities to carry out such a mission.

It is not an exaggeration to say that with all his inherent qualities Mohammad Ali Effendi would have been an ideal leader to succeed his brother, Abdul Baha Abbas.

This symbolic picture of the ideal leader, this noble heart, this wonderful character and elevated soul, this leader, who loved Baha’ism and devoted his whole life to its service, his care for the edifice he had helped to set up, his earnestness to prevent it from cracking and crumbling all these obliged him to swallow in silence the great lie regarding the forged will which the malicious intriguers had fabricated and who made use of the alleged misunderstanding which they themselves invented in order to misled public opinion and achieve their vicious ends. Consequently they tarnished the reputation of Abdul Baha Abbas and succeeded in discarding Mohammad Ali Effendi from the leadership and entrusted it to a boy whom they were able to handle as they pleased – on account of his youth.




HAIFA, 20/2/53.



Abdul Baha Abbas was born at midnight on the 23rd May, 1844 in Tehran, the same year that “El Bab” proclaimed his mission to the world.

When Abbas Effendi was scarcely nine years old, his father was arrested and imprisoned in Teheran. The mob attacked his house and looted it, the family was stripped of its property and left to suffer the sting of hardship and poverty.

Abdul Baha Abbas was so attached to his father that he almost appeared to act as his bodyguard. Being constantly around him, his father educated him as he wished and brought him up as he saw fit, sowed in him the seeds of his principles, built in him a strong personality, imbibed him with the spirit of humanitarianism and taught him that those who serve humanity achieve victory at the end. He told that to be a good Baha’i, he should love the world and humanity in general and try to serve it and labor for universal peace and brotherhood.

Abdul Baha Abbas graduated from his father’s school a strong spiritual personality; he was wise and generous, a father to the needy and a guide to those who went astray. He drew his sublime principles and humanitarian ideals from the school of life and the hardships of experience.

The despotic rule of Abdul Hamid having terminated in 1908 and the then young Turkey having extended a general amnesty for all prisoners. Abdul Baha Abbas was released at the age of 40 from the prison in which he had entered as a boy.

At the age Abbas Effendi took upon himself the responsibility to propagate his father’s mission, proceeded to Egypt, Switzerland, France, Germany, Hungary, Great Britain, United Sates of America and Canada and there preached his father’s principles and humanitarian ideals which were deeply rooted in him. In the course of his visits to those countries thousands of people heard him preach the principles of his father, in churches and in every type of religious institutions, and millions of people read about the teachings of Baha’u’llah in the local newspapers, and so in virtue of his magnetic personality he was able to attract men and women of every belief and religion.

His followers loved him greatly and he reciprocated their love, he lifted their standards morally, spiritually and materially to the limit of his possibilities and he endeavored with all his might to come to the rescue of those who were materially in need as well as to those who sought moral assistance.

This beloved religious leader who called himself Abdul Baha – meaning the servant of Baha’u’llah, his father – who was led by his father’s personality in darkness and guided in solving problems, this leader who carried out his father’s teachings almost literally without originating anything new himself or misconstruction, do you believe, dear reader that this servant of Baha’u’llah, this honest and good man could in any way deviate from the path his master drew for him for the advancement and leadership of the Baha’i Movement?

Certain persons looking after their own property material benefit originated what they called a Will and attributed its issue to Abbas Effendi in which he was supposed to nominate his grandson to the spiritual leadership of the Movement. This grandson who was at that time a young boy and therefore enable to realize the extent of the great responsibility that was being entrusted to him by those persons, is, in my opinion, and I have undeniable evidence to this effect – unable to realize it up to the present moment.

Those persons whether they intended or not have certainly committed and unforgivable sin against Abbas Effendi. A Will contradicting his father’s Will! This is a Shame, Shame herself especially as the sacred nature of a will is respected not only by the Easterners but also by the nations of the world; moreover is it believable that Abbas Effendi have tampered with his father’s Will so long as he knew that he had no right whatever to change anything in it especially as his father had limited the succession, in case of death, to his brother, Mohammad Ali Effendi.

Those persons who originated the Will and pretended to venerate Abbas Effendi, attached to him a disgrace which the commonest of people would have resented, so how much more with him, the great religious leader for they have pictured him as a disobedient boy violating his father’s Will, the same Will which gave him the right to the leadership. His brothers respected the holiness of their father’s Will and accepted it and extended their help in the struggle for the propagation of the Movement.

On Friday 25th November 1921 Abdul Baha Abbas, as usual attended Friday prayers and distributed in person alms to the poor and needy and returned to his residence. Three days later, on 28th November, 1921, Abdul Baha Abbas died, leaving according to his father’s Will, the spiritual leadership of the Movement to his brother, Mohammad Ali Effendi.






God’s revelation is like a crystal fountain that flows into the hearts of the prophets from time to time.

This fountain crossing the life of Zoroaster produced through his teachers, great kings, experienced politicians, wise philosophers, inspired poets and outstanding men of art.

That same fountain inspired the great Buddha who came as huge cloud and showered his principles/quenched the thirst of millions of peoples.

It overwhelmed the quiet life of Confucius and made the Chinese people a cultured and pious nation.

It found its way into Moses’ heart as a result of which the desert blossomed in fruit and flower.

It made a deep incision into Jesus Christ’s soul and then the scent of the flowers of love perfumed the lives of the believers.

It penetrated with violence and turmoil into the Arabian Desert where Mohammad, the irrigator watered the fields of knowledge, art and science.

And now this current of revelation struck the hearts of the Baha’i Leaders. Mirza Hussein Ali, later named Baha’u’llah was born in the city of Nur, Persia in the year 1817. He was the same reformer whose imminent appearance was prophesied by Mirza Ali Mohammad “Al Bab” when the latter made his movement in May 1844 in which he declared that the world with its methods and worn out traditions was about to collapse and a new free and strong world would replace it.

Baha’u’llah started his revolutionary mission in 1863 and waged a relentless war against the worn-out traditions and the forces of evil as a result of which he was stripped of his hereditary title as a noble in the Persian Court and suffered and loss of his vast estates through confiscation.

He proclaimed the end of the night of aggression and cruel fanaticism and prophesized the dawn of peace and brotherhood, preaching the oneness of Earth, race and religion.

And he is the one who said that all the human race springs from one source and the apparent differences result from differences of environment and degrees of culture and that humanity is nothing else but one Family. After all God created the Earth without boundaries or frontiers.

The founders of the great religions in the world are but inspired people carrying holy messages to different corners of the world at different intervals of time.

Baha’ism is not an organization but a system of though and a new way of living.

The effect of this was that the authorities of thee State together with the authorities of Religion combined, arrested and imprisoned him and later exiled him with his family and a group of his followers across the Persian border, Bagdad then became his residence.

During the first twelve years of his exile in Baghdad, the Baha’i Movement expanded and spread, for the suffering which he experienced and the hardships which beset him did not stop him from delivering his message. Men and women from various regions flocked to quench their thirst from this sweet and only fountain.

Later he was exiled anew to Constantinople and from there to Adana and at last to Acre fortress, from that impenetrable fortress; this great prisoner spread his teaching of love, brotherhood, peace and justice to the East and the West. From within the wall of this great fortress, Baha’u’llah sent his messages to thee kings, emperors and rulers of the world in which he showed them the way to salvation and urged them to put an end to thee rule of violence and to establish a reign of justice, brotherhood and to erect the foundations for a permanent international Parliament.

These principles mentioned above preached by Baha’u’llah with great power of Spirit were transmitted to the President of the United States of America, to the king of Prussia, to the Emperor of Austria, to the Tasr of Russia, to Napoleon the III, to Queen Victoria, to the Sultan of Turkey, to the Shah of Persia and the Holy Pope.

After 40 years of exile and continuous labor and after the martyrdom of 20,000 of his followers, Baha’u’llah died in 1892, leaving a will to his eldest son, Abbas Effendi, to be succeeded by his second son, Mohammad Ali Effendi, assigning to them the spiritual leadership of the Movement and the responsibility of carrying out his mission of brotherhood and peace.